There are roughly 1.6 billion Muslims in the world, but only two scientists from Muslim countries have won Nobel Prizes in science (one for physics in 1979, the other for chemistry in 1999). Forty-six Muslim countries combined contribute just 1 percent of the world’s scientific literature; Spain and India each contribute more of the world’s scientific literature than those countries taken together. In fact, although Spain is hardly an intellectual superpower, it translates more books in a single year than the entire Arab world has in the past thousand years. “Though there are talented scientists of Muslim origin working productively in the West,” Nobel laureate physicist Steven Weinberg has observed, “for forty years I have not seen a single paper by a physicist or astronomer working in a Muslim country that was worth reading.”Not to mention the more recent things religion has done, such as its continued and unrelenting attack on the rights of people who do not believe as they do. Today there are still thousands of court cases about religious people discriminating against gays and lesbians, and atheists simply because they do not share the same religious beliefs. There are continuous cases in court at the moment where religious people are trying to keep the law set up so that gay couples cannot get married. There are countless examples of religious schools and organisations teaching fundamentally false things as fact and calling into question the very basics of science.